|§7||CORSETS AND CLOSE-FITTING PATTERNS||13|
29. Tight-fitting foundation patterns are very essential; in fact, they are practically indispensable at times in the construction of garments for women, for nothing can equal them as a perfect foundation. Linings cut out and made according to such patterns are always referred to as tight linings, whereas the term close-fitting lining would convey the idea better, because, properly, such linings should fit close, but not tight. However, as the term tight lining is so generally used and so well known, it will be adopted in these lessons on dressmaking.
In drafting, the lines of the tight-fitting foundation patterns are made to conform as nearly as possible to the lines of the human figure. These lines merit close study so as to come to a good knowledge of them, and their beauty should be taken into account so that they may be fully appreciated. Both the plan of building up the draft and the method of taking out the darts at the waist line in order that the foundation pattern may be reduced to correspond with the waist measure are interesting, for they enable any one to see readily just how the waist may be made tight or semifitted by properly proportioning the darts at the waist line.
30. The drafting of a tight-fitting foundation waist with a twopiece back is the first of the tight-fitting patterns to be considered.
Such a pattern draft, made according to the following measurements,
is shown in full size in Plate VI and in reduced size in Fig. 3:
Neck ............................................ 13
Bust ............................................. 38
Front ............................................ 21½
Chest ............................................ 14
Width of back .................................... 13½
Length of back .................................... 15
Center-back depth ................................ 7
Armhole ......................................... 15
Waist ............................................ 25
Hip ........................................... 38
Dart ........................................... 8
31. To draft a pattern of this kind, a sheet of paper of the same size as that used in drafting the plain foundation-waist pattern, Plate I, is required. The work is begun and carried on in the same manner as in making the plain foundation-waist draft until point Q is located and the armhole curves are drawn, but nothing should be added to the original bust, width-of-back, chest, or front measures. The pattern having been drawn up to this point according to the directions for drafting a plain foundation waist, the remainder of the drafting should be done according to the following directions:
32. The front waist line should receive attention first. Place the square, U. S. up, so that its corner is at N and its short arm extends along the center-front line below N, and draw a light diagonal line 5 or 6 in. in length along the long arm. Points N2and N3 must be located on this line. Point N2 should be to the right of N a distance equal to one-third the bust line from F to G2; therefore, measure the bust line from F to G2, obtaining in this case 10 3/8in., and, placing the corner of the square, L. S. up, on N and the short arm on the center front line above N, locate N2 to the right of N opposite 10 3/8 on the scale of thirds. Then, keeping the square in the same position, locate point N3 1 in. to the right of N. Next, locate point L2 midway between points L and J2, using the straight edge of the long arm of the square in measuring, and connect points L2 and N2 with a heavy diagonal line. After this line is drawn, mark F2 at its intersection with the bust line, and locate point F3 1 in. below F2 on line L2 N2. Connect points F and N3 with a curved line next, placing the square, L. S. up, so that n of the L. A. C. is at point N3 and the edge of the curve, near t, touches F. It will be observed that by using the curved line N3 F there is obtained at the center front a curve that tends to fit into the figure, thus making it possible to obtain a more perfect side line than would otherwise be the case, and at the same time to dispense with half darts, which are not only very difficult to put in, but very unsatisfactory.
33. The remainder of the waist line and the under-arm line should now receive attention. Thus, with the corner of the square, either side up, at N2 and the straight edge of the long arm touching C on the foundation line, draw a light, straight line to connect these points. Then draw the under-arm line as directed in making the plain foundation-waist draft, extending it the. dart length, or 8 in. in this case, below the waist line, and place R at the intersection of this line and the waist line, or line N2 C. Points T, U, and V should then be located and points A and T connected with a straight line, as in the making of the plain foundation-waist draft, and several additional points located. Thus, locate and mark point C2. midway between points C and R on the waist line; T2, 1 in. to the right of C2; U2, ½ in. to the left of C2; and E2 midway between K and E on the back shoulder line.
These points should now be connected to form the pattern lines. First, place the corner of the square, either side up, on point E2 and the straight edge of the long arm on T2 and draw a heavy straight line to the bust line, locating B2 at the point where these lines meet. Then connect with a heavy curved line the points B2 and T2, placing the square, U. S. up, so that ff of the L. A. C. is at T2 and the edge of the curve, near bb, touches B2. The position of the square in making this curved line is such that the straight edge of the short arm is toward you. Then, connect B2 and U2 with a heavy curved line, moving the square up and over to the left so that mm of the L. A. C. touches U2 and the edge of the curve, near gg, touches B2.
Next, connect points G2 and U with a heavy curved line as in drafting the plain foundation waist or in connecting points B2 and T2 of this draft; that is, place ff of the L. A. C., U. S. of square up, on U and the curved edge of the long arm, near bb, on G2. Then, connect G2 and V in the same way as B2 and U2 were connected—mm of the L. A. C. at V and the edge of the curve, near gg, at G2.
34. To complete the drafting of the side front section, two more points, namely, V2 and V3, must be located. To locate point V2, it is necessary to have the correct measurement of the front section and the two back sections, which is found as follows: Measure the waist line of the front section from N2 to N3, placing the square, U. S. up, so that the straight edge of the long arm is next to you. In this case, the distance between points N2 and N3 is 2½ in. Place the measurement mark thus obtained, in this case the 2½-in. mark, on point T and measure over to T2, getting in this case 4 7/8 in., slide the square over the dart, place the measurement mark just obtained, 4 7/8 in., on point U2, and measure to U, getting in this case 7 7/8 in.; now skip this dart, or space, and place the last measurement mark obtained, 7 7/8 in., on point V and measure out to the left on this line N2 C to a point on the square indicating one-half the waist measure, in this case opposite 25 on the scale of halves. At this point locate V2. In measuring the waist line of these sections the work can be facilitated by using the thumb of the left hand as a guide. The thumb is placed at the proper mark on the square as each measurement is taken and held there until the square is properly placed for the next measurement. This method insures accuracy and it simply requires a little practice to become skilful.
Next, locate and mark point V3 below point F3 a distance equal to line N2 F3 minus ¼ in. On measuring the line for this draft, it is found to be 7 7/8 in.; therefore, place the corner of the square on F3 and its straight edge on V2 and locate point V3 the length of line N2 F3 minus ¼ in., or in this case 7 5/8 in., below F3. With point V3 located, connect it and F3 with a curved line, placing the square, L. S. up, so that m of the L. A. C. is at V3 and the edge of the L. A. C., near s, touches F3. Then, move the square until 3C of the F. B. C. of the square falls on F2 and adjust the curve to touch the line F3 V3 from ½ to 1 in. below point F3 and draw the short curve thus outlined by the F. B. C. Next, turn the square around so that m of the L. A. C. touches V and the edge of the L. A. C., near q, is at V3 and connect these two points.
35. Next in order in making this tight-fitting foundation-waist draft is to extend below the waist line the lines that form the hip section. First, measure down the dart length, in this case 8 in., on line A C and locate point W, and then connect points T and W with a heavy diagonal line. Next, with the U. S. of the square up, place the straight edge of the short arm along the bust line, allowing the straight edge of the long arm to touch T2, and draw a heavy vertical line the dart length, in this case 8 in., below T2, lettering its termination W2. Then connect W and W2 with a heavy line horizontal to the waist and bust lines.
Point S is located the dart length below R on the foundation underarm line. Next, locate point S2 ½ in. to the right of W2, and with the straight edge of the square on points U2 and S2, locate point S3 the dart length, in this case 8 in., below U2. With these points located, connect U2 and S3 with a heavy curved line, placing s of the L. A. C. of the square, L. S. up, on U2 and the edge of the L. A. C., near w, on S3. Turn the square U. S. up, and connect points U and S with a similar curved line, placing gg of the L. A. C. on point U and the edge of the L. A. C., near cc, on S. Then connect points S and S3 with a heavy diagonal line.
36. Next, extend the center front line until it is the dart length, in this case 8 in., below N, and locate point X at its termination. Then locate point X2 1 in. to the right of X, placing the square L. S. up, its corner at X, and its short arm on the foundation line. Measure the distance from N3to N2 on the front waist line, in this case 2½ in., and then locate point X3this distance plus ½ in., in this case 3 in., to the right of X2, placing the square in the same position as in locating point X2. With these points X2 and X3 thus located, connect N3 and X2, X2 and X3, and X3 and N2, each with a heavy diagonal line.
37. Locate point Y, next, a dart length, in this case 8 in., below V3, placing the square L. S. up, its short arm along the bust line, and its long arm touching point V3 also, with the square in this position, draw a heavy line to connect points V3 and Y.
The location of point Y2 must next be found by measuring the hip line of the hip sections. Proceed the same as in testing the waist line. Measure the front section from X2 to X3, obtaining in this case 3 in. Place the mark of the square thus obtained, 3 in., on point S and measure to S3, obtaining 8 7/8 in. in this case. Place this mark of the square, 8 7/8 in., on W2 and measure to W, obtaining 12 1/8 in. in this case. Place this mark of the square, 12 1/8 in., on point Y and measure out to a point indicating one-half the hip measure, in this case opposite 38 on the scale of halves, and mark point Y2 on line S S3. Knowing the position of point Y2, next locate point Y3; place the square, U. S. up, so that its corner touches V and the straight edge of the long arm touches Y2, and then locate this point Y3 the dart length, in this case 8 in., below V. With these points located, connect V and Y3 with a heavy curved line, placing the square, L. S. up, so that s of the L. A. C. is at V and the edge of this curve, near w, is at Y3. Then turn the square around so that y of the L. A. C. is at point Y of the draft, and the edge of the curve, near v, touches Y3 and connect these points, thus completing the drafting of the tight-fitting foundation waist.
38. Cutting the Draft Apart.—The draft for the tightfitting foundation waist is now ready to be cut apart, but before doing so a piece of paper 8 or 10 in. square must be pasted or machinestitched across the back section. This paper should be placed so that it will come just below the waist line and the center of the draft; that is, so that it will back up that part of the draft included by the lines U S, S S3, S3 U2, and U2 U. The purpose of this extra paper, as will be readily seen, is to take care of the back and side front sections that overlap. This paper must be pasted or stitched to the draft only at the waist line; the bottom must hang free. With this extra piece of paper in place, trace with a tracing wheel from U to S; from S to S3; and from S3 to U2, and then proceed to cut apart the sections of the pattern as follows:
Cut the center-back section from W, through T, to A; from A to E to E2; from E2 to B2to T2 to W2; and from W2 to W. In cutting from T2 to W2, lift the paper so as not to cut the piece of paper that has been added to the side back section.
Cut the side-back section on the traced line from S3 to U2; from U2 to B2; from E2,through I, to K; from K to G2; from G2 to U; from U on the traced line underneath the original line to S; from S to S3 on the traced line.
Cut the side-front section from Y3 to V; from V to G2; from G2, through Q, to J2; from J2 to L2; from L2 through F2 and V3 to Y; and from Y to Y3.
Cut the front section from X3 to N2; from N2 to F3; then from L2 to L; from L on the front-neck curve to O; from O, through P, F, and N3 to X2; and from X2 to X3.