Glossary

abdomen (ab-DO-men)
–that portion of the body that lies between the chest and the pelvis.
abdominal muscles
–see page 165.
angina pectoris (AN-jin-ah PEC-tor-is)
–a form of heart disease.   See page 174.
ankylosis (ang-kil-O-sis)
–abnormal immobility, stiffness or fixation of a joint.
antepartum (an-te-PAR-tum)
–occurring before childbirth (same as prenatal).
anterior (an-TE-re-or)
–situated in front of, or in the forward part of.
anterior superior spine of ilium
–see Fig. 171.
appendectomy (ap-en-DEK-to-me)
–surgical removal of the appendix vermiformis.
appendix vermiformis (ap-EN-diks ver-mi-FOR-mis)
–commonly called the appendix–a small, worm-like part of the intestines attached to the cecum. Same as vermiform appendix.   See Fig. 139.
arthritis (arth-RI-tis)
–inflammation of a joint.   See page 174.
articular processes (ar-TIK-u-lar PROS-es-es)
–the small projecting points from the upper and lower surfaces of the vertebrae, by means of which the vertebrae are joined with each other.
asymmetric (ah-sim-ET-ric)
–when there is a difference in size, shape or appearance of corresponding parts or organs, which are normally alike.
atrophic (at-ROF-ik)
–pertaining to or characterized by atrophy.
atrophy (AT-ro-fe)
–a defect or failure of nutrition manifested as a wasting away or reduction in the size of cell, tissue, organ or part.
body mechanics
–the mechanics of the function of the various systems of the human body, especially the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory and nervous systems.
cardiac (KAR-de-ak)
–pertaining to the heart.
cecum (SE-kum)
–that part of the large intestine into which the small intestine empties.
cervical vertebrae (SER-vik-al VER-te-bri)
–the seven spinal bones of the neck.
cæsarian section (se-ZA-re-an SEK-shun)
–delivery of the fetus (child) by an incision through the adbominal wall and uterine wall. Named after Julius Cæsar, who was born in that manner.
cholecystectomy (ko-le-sis-TEK-to-me)
–surgical removal of the gall bladder.
clavicle (KLAV-ik-al)
–the collarbone.
clinical (KLIN-ik-al)
–pertaining to actual observation and treatment of patients as distinguished from the theoretical or experimental.
coccyx (KOK-siks)
–the tip end of the spinal column.   See Fig. 142.
colitis (ko-LI-tis)
–inflammation of the colon.
colon (KO-lon)
–the large intestine.
coloptosis (ko-lop-TO-sis)
–prolapse or falling of the colon.
colostomy (ko-LOS-to-me)
–a surgical operation which creates an artificial opening into the colon.
compensatory malpositioning (kom-PEN-sa-to-re mal-pos-ZISH-in ing)
–abnormal change or adjustment in a part of the body (such as the spine) which takes place to compensate for another faulty or abnormal part.
congenital (kon-JEN-it-al)
–existing at or before birth.
congestion (con-JEST-yun)
–excessive or abnormal accumulation of blood in a part.
dilatation (di-la-TA-shun)
–state of being dilated or stretched beyond the normal dimensions.
dilation (di-LA-shun)
–act of dilating or stretching.
dorsal vertebrae (DOR-sal VER-te-bri)
–the twelve vertebrae which connect the ribs ; also called thoracic vertebrae.   See Fig. 142.
duodenum (du-o-DE-num)
–the first portion of the small intestine.   See page 162, "Small Intestine."
edema (e-DE-mah)
–swelling.
engorged (en-GORJD)
–distended or swollen with fluids.
enteroptosis (en-ter-o-TO-sis)
–descent or downward displacement of the intestine in the abdominal cavity.
epigastric (ep-e-GAS-trik)
–pertaining to the upper middle portion of the abdomen.
esophagus (e-SOF-ag-us)
–the gullet ; a canal extending from back of mouth to the stomach.
etiology (e-te-OL-o-je)
–a study of the causes of disease.
excise (ek-SIZ)
–to cut out or off.
excretion (eks-KRE-shun)
–act or process of eliminating waste material from the body.
exhale
–to breathe out.
external oblique muscles (eks-TUR-nul o-BLEEK MUS-els)
–see page 166.
fascia (FASH-e-ah)
–a sheet or band of tissue which connects and surrounds muscles, keeps muscles in place or connects muscles and tendons.
fasciomyositis (FASH-e-o-my-o-SY-tis)
–"myositis" means inflam mation of a muscle ; "fascia" refers to a tissue which connects and surrounds muscles. "Fasciomyositis" is an inflammation of a muscle and fascia surrounding it.
femoral (FEM-or-al)
pertaining to the thigh.
femur (FE-mur)
–the thighbone.
fractured vertebrae (FRAK-tured VER-te-bri)
–a break or rupture in the spinal bones.
gastroptosis (gas-tro-TO-sis)
–downward displacement of the stomach.
geriatrics (je-re-AT-riks)
–that department of medicine which treats of the clinical problems of growing old or of old age. groin–the fold or depression between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh, or the region about it.
herniotomy (her-ne-OT-o-me)
–a cutting operation for the repair of hernia.
hipbone
–same as innominate bone–the large side bone of the pelvis, consisting of the ilium, the pubis and the ischium.   See page 171.
hypertrophy (hi-PER-trof-e)
–the diseased enlargement or over growth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its cells.
hysterectomy (his-ter-EK-to-me)
–surgical removal of the uterus, through the abdominal wall or the vagina.
ilium (IL-e-um)
–the haunch bone–the wide upper part of the hipbone.   See Fig. 145.
ilia (IL-e-ah)
–the plural of ilium.
immobilize (im-OB-il-iz)
–to render incapable of being moved.
infection (in-FEK-shun)
–invasion of the tissues of the body by bacteria.
inguinal (IN-gwin-al)
–pertaining to the groin. inhale-to breathe into the lungs.
innominate bone (in-OM-in-at bone)
–the hipbone–the large side bone of the pelvis, consisting of the ilium, the pubis and the ischium.   See page 171.
internal oblique muscles (in-TUR-nul o-BLEEK MUS-els)
–see page 166.
intervertebral disc (in-ter-VER-te-bral disk)
–a layer of fibrocartilage between the bodies of vertebrae. It consists of a fibrous ring enclosing a pulpy centre.
intervertebral disc protrusion (in-ter-VER-te-bral disk pro-TRU zhun)
–a forcing out of the pulpy centre of disc between two vertebrae, causing pressure on nerves.
involution (in-vo-LU-shun)
–a turning or rolling inward or a diminishing of an organ in its vital power or size.
ischium (IS-ke-um)
–the lower part of the innominate bone.   See Fig. 143.
kyphosis (ki-FO-sis)
–abnormal humpback curvature of the vertebral column.
lamina (LAM-in-ah)
–a thin flat layer of membrane or bone.
laminectomy (lam-in-EK-to-me)
–the surgical removal of the posterior arch of a vertebra.
lamnectomy (lam-NEK-to-me)
–the surgical removal of the lamina of a vertebra.
laparotomy (lap-ar-OT-o-me)
–surgical incision through the flank or abdomen.
ligament (LIG-am-ent)
–any tough, fibrous band which connects bones or supports viscera.   The viscera are attached to the bony structure, and are connected to each other by ligaments.
linea alba (LIN-e-ah AL-bah)
–the tendinous middle area down the front of the abdomen, giving attachment to the oblique and transverse abdominal muscles.
lordosis (lor-DO-sis)
–curvature of spinal column characterized by an abnormal hollow at the small of the back ; swayback.
lordotic (lor-DOT-ik)
–relating to or affected with lordosis.
lumbar vertebrae (LUM-bar VER-ter-bri)
–the five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum.   See Fig. 142.
lumbosacral (lum-bo-SA-kral)
–pertaining to the sacrum and the lumbar region.
lymph (limf)
–a transparent, slightly yellow liquid which fills the lymphatic vessels.
mammae (MAM-i)
–the mammary glands, the breast.
mastectomy (mas-TEK-to-me)
–surgical removal of the breast.
mastitis (mas-TI-tis)
–inflammation of the breast, particularly of the mammary gland.
maternity (ma-TER-nit-e)
–motherhood.
medial (ME-de-al)
–pertaining to the middle.
membrane (MEM-brane)
–a thin layer of tissue which covers a surface or divides a space or organ.
mobile rib bed (MO-bil)
–front area of the two lowest ribs on each side.   Also called floating ribs.
nephrectomy (nef-REK-to-me)
–surgical removal of the kidney.
nephropexy (NEF-ro-peks-e)
–the fixation or "tying up" of a floating kidney.
nephroptosis (nef-rop-TO-sis)
–downward displacement of the kidney.
neurology (nu-ROL-o je)
–that branch of medical science which deals with the nervous system, both normal and in disease.
neuromuscular (nu-ro-MUS-ku-lar)
–pertaining to nerves and muscles.
neuropsychiatric (NU-ro-si-ki-AT-ric)
–dealing with cases that are both neurologic and mental or on the borderline between.
non-pathological (path-o-LOJ-i-kal)
–not diseased.
obesity (o-BES-it-e)
–an excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
orthopaedics (or-tho-PE-diks)
–the treatment of affections of the spine and joints and the prevention and correction of deformities.
osteoporosis (os-te-o-po-RO-sis)
–abnormal porousness of bone by the enlargement of its canals.
palliative (PAL-e-a-tiv)
–affording relief, but not cure.
para (PAR-ah)
–a prefix meaning beside, accessory to, apart from, etc. As used here, indicates offspring: para 1, one child; para 2, two children, etc.
paraplegia (par-ah-PLE je-ah)
–paralysis of lower portion of body and of both legs due to injury or degeneration of central nervous system with loss of both motion and sensation.
parturition (par-tu-RISH-un)
–act of giving birth.
pectoral (PEK-to-ral)
–pertaining to the chest.
pectoralis major (pek-to-RA-lis MA jor)
–muscle of the chest that draws arm forward and downward and aids in chest expansion.
pelvis (PEL-vis)
–the basin-shaped ring of bone, composed of the innominate bones (hipbones) at the sides and in front, and the sacrum and coccyx behind.   See page 172.
perineal (per-in-E-al)
–pertaining to the perineum (the space between the anus and the genital organs).
periosteum (per-e-OS-te-um)
–the tough fibrous membrane surround ing a bone.
peritoneum (per-it-o-NE-um)
–the membrane which lines the abdominal walls and envelops the contained viscera.
phlebitis (fleb-I-tis)
–inflammation of a vein.
pneumoperitoneum (nu-mo-per-it-o-NE-um)
–injection of air into the abdominal cavity.   See page 178.
poliomyelitis (pol-e-o-mi-el-I-tis)
–the inflammation of the grey substance of the spinal cord.   Infantile paralysis.
posterior (pos-TE-re-or)
–situated behind or toward the rear.
postnatal (post-NA-tal)
–occurring after birth. (Same as post partum).
postoperative (post-OP-er-a-tiv)
–occurring after a surgical opera tion.
postpartum (post-PAR-tum)
–after childbirth.   (Same as postnatal).
postural hypotension (POS-tu-ral hi-po-TEN-shun)
–low blood pressure condition that frequently follows the operation of splanchnicectomy or sympathectomy.
postural syndrome (POS-tu-ral SIN-drom)
–a complex of symptoms, pertaining to posture.   See page 179.
Pott's disease
–tuberculosis of the spine.   See page 179.
prenatal (pre-NA-tal)
–existing or occurring before birth.   (Same as antepartum).
primigravida (prim-i-GRAV-id-ah)
–a woman who is having her first pregnancy.
prognosis (prog-NO-sis)
–the doctor's prediction as to the course and outcome of the disease.
prolapse (pro-LAPS)
–the falling down or sinking of a part or abdominal organ.
prone
–lying with the face downward.
prosthesis (PROS-the-sis)
–a replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, as a breast form.
protruding disc (pro-TRU-ding disk)
–a protrusion of the pulpy centre of disc between the bodies of the vertebrae, causing pressure on the nerves.
ptosis (TO-sis)
–prolapse or downward displacement of an organ or part.
ptotic (TO-tik)
–pertaining to or affected with ptosis.
pubic bone (PU-bik)
–the joint of the two foremost bones of the pelvis.   See Fig. 143.
puerperium (pu-er-PE-re-um)
–the period of confinement immedi ately after childbirth.
rectus abdominis muscles (REC-tus ab-DOM-in-is MUS-els)
–see page 166.
recumbent (re-KUM-bent)
–lying down.
sacroiliac (sa-kro-IL-e-ak)
–pertaining to the sacrum and ilium.
sacroiliac sprain or strain (sa-kro-IL-e-ak strain)
–wrenching of the joint between the sacrum and ilium.
sacrum (SA-krum)
–the triangular bone situated at the back of the pelvis, between the ilia (hipbones).   It is the bone upon which the fifth lumbar vertebra rests.   See Fig. 143.
scapula (SKAP-u-lah)
–the shoulder blade-the flat triangular bone in the back of the shoulder.   See Fig. 144.
scoliosis (sko-le-O-sis)
–abnormal, sidewise curvature of the vertebral column.
skeletal (SKEL-a-tal)
–pertaining to the skeleton.
spina bifida (SPI-nah BIF-i-dah)
–a congenital defect in the vertebral column, with protrusion of the spinal cord.
spinal arthritis (SPI-nal ar-THRI-tis)
–inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae. Same as spondylarthritis.
spinal fusion (SPI-nal FU-zhun)
–the operation of joining and immobilizing two vertebrae.
spinal operation (SPI-nal op-er-A-shun)
–an operation on the spinal column.
splanchnicectomy (splank-ni-SEK-to-me)
–surgical removal of a section of the splanchnic nerves. Operation sometimes per formed to relieve high blood pressure.
splanchnoptosis (splank-no-TO-sis)
–the falling down of the viscera –same as visceroptosis.
spondylarthritis (spon-dil-ar-THRI-tis)
–inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae.   Same as spinal arthritis.
spondylitis (spon-dil-I-tis)
–inflammation of a vertebra.
spondylosis (spon-dil-O-sis)
–abnormal immobility of a vertebral joint.
spondylolisthesis (spon-dil-o-lis-THE-sis)
–forward displacement of one vertebra over another, usually of the fifth lumbar over the body of the sacrum, or of the fourth lumbar over the fifth.
sprain (or strain)
–wrenching of a joint or ligaments.
stasis (STA-sis)
–a stoppage of the flow of blood or other body fluid.
sternum (STER-num)
–the breastbone.
strain
–overstretching of a muscle.
subluxation (sub-luks-A-shun)
–an incomplete or partial dislocation.
supine (su-PINE)
–lying on the back.
sympathectomy (sim-path-EK-to-me)
–the surgical removal of a part of a sympathetic nerve.   Operation sometimes performed to relieve high blood pressure.
syndrome (SIN-drom)
–a set of symptoms which occur together.
thoracic vertebrae (thor-AS-ik VER-te-bri)
–the twelve vertebrae which connect the ribs, also called dorsal vertebrae. See Fig. 142.
thorax (THO-raks)
–the chest.
tibia (TIB-e-ah)
–the shin bone.
transversus abdominis muscles (trans-VER-sus ab-DOM-in-is MUS-els)
–see page 140.
tuberculous (tu-BER-ku-lus)
–pertaining to or affected with tuber culosis.
umbilical (um-BIL-i-kal)
–pertaining to the navel.
uterine wall (U-ter-in wawl)
–wall of the uterus.
ventral (VEN-tral)
–pertaining to the abdomen.
vermiform appendix (ver-mi-FORM ap-EN-diks)
–commonly called the appendix-a small, worm-like part of the intestines attached to the cecum.   Same as appendix vermiformis.   See Fig. 139.
vertebrae (VER-te-bri)
–the bones of the spinal column.
viscera (VIS-er-ah)
–the larger organs in any one, or all the three great cavities of the body, especially the abdomen.
visceroptosis (vis-er-op-TO-sis)
–the prolapse or falling down of the viscera.   Same as splanchnoptosis.
viscus (VIS-kus)
–the singular of viscera-any one of the larger visceral organs.