Boned tight lining
Fig. 16

40.   Selection of Material.—In Fig. 16 is shown a tight lining stayed and supported with featherbone.   A lining so prepared is necessary for a waist the material of which must be supported to retain its shape, and also for a dress that is draped, for it serves as an excellent foundation on which to build.   The kind of material to use for such a lining depends on the material employed for the dress of which the lining is to be a part.   China silk, messaline, and percaline are used most, but taffeta silk is sometimes employed, and for inexpensive dresses cambric or light-weight sateen may be used if desired.   For nearly all soft-silk dresses, however, China-silk lining will be found convenient and satisfactory, for it is not unduly expensive and it is light in weight and yet of a weave firm enough to give the necessary support to the dress itself.   For dresses of wool or of heavy silk or satin, percaline of good quality is suitable for linings, unless more expensive lining is desired; then, of course, taffeta silk or firmly woven satin is preferable.

41.   Amount of Material Required.—For the average figure, 2 yd. of 30-in, material is usually sufficient for the tight lining of a dress, because in a dress lining the extension below the waist line is not so great as for a lining used as a dress-form covering; usually, it is from 3 to 6 in., the length depending on the style of dress in which the lining is to be used.   Sleeves are rarely made of the same material as the dress lining, for the reason that such material would make the sleeve appear clumsy, being too heavy to cling to the arm and to shape into it properly; yet, if the sleeves for any reason are to be lined with the same material as the dress, allowance must be made for the extra material that will be required.

42.   Cutting Out and Making the Dress Lining.—To cut out and make a tight lining that is to be stayed with featherbone, as shown in Fig. 16, requires as much care as the tight-fitting lining used to cover a padded dress form, the procedure, briefly, being as follows:

First, determine how far below the waist line the lining is to come, and then fold back or cut off the tight-lining pattern pieces at the proper places.   Next, fold the material through the center, crosswise, and pin the selvage edges together, and on it place the pattern pieces, pinning them in place in the manner explained in connection with the dress-form covering.   With the pattern pieces in place, cut the lining out, allowing 3/8 to in. for seams; also, cut two bias strips 1 in. wide and 2 in. longer than the opening of the lining.   These strips serve as facings for the opening, as a casing for the featherbone, and as a covering for the rings of the hooks and eyes.   After the material is cut out, baste and fit the lining and then stitch and press all seams except the shoulder seams.   These seams should have the basting removed from them so that the lining will lie out smooth, thus making it more convenient to put in the featherbone.

If sleeves are to be made of the same material as the lining, cut them the same as the sleeves for a dress-form tight lining; also, baste and fit them, but do not fit them so close as for a dress-form sleeve, as they must be loose enough to be perfectly comfortable.   When the sleeves are properly fitted, stitch them in the regular way, but do not attach them to the lining until it is boned.

With the lining in this condition, the work of boning, or inserting the featherbone may be taken up.

43.   Quantity of Featherbone Required.   The quantity of featherbone required for a tight lining is not great.   On an average, the, two-piece-back lining requires 2 yd. and the three-piece-back lining, about 3 yd., the quantity depending on whether the figure is long-waisted or short-waisted.   Long-waisted figures, as is evident, require more featherbone length for each seam than do short-waisted figures.

44.   Cutting the Featherbone Into Proper Lengths.— The first step in preparing featherbone for a tight lining is to cut it into proper lengths.   Therefore, measure the under-arm seam from the armhole to the waist line to determine its length and then cut a piece, or strip, of featherbone equal in length to one-half of the length thus determined, plus the length below the waist line, plus 1 in.   This extra inch is an allowance for finishing the end of the featherbone that is to be uppermost when secured to the waist.   The piece thus cut out serves as a measure in cutting the other bones to be used, for their length is regulated by the length of the under-arm seam.

Next, cut a second under-arm piece of featherbone, making it the same length as the first piece; then, as the waist lining here discussed opens in the back, cut a piece for the center front and two for the center back, making each of these 1 in. longer than the featherbone cut for the under-arm seam.   Of course, if the waist opens in front, two of these pieces would be for the center front and the other for the center back.   For openings of this kind, there is a special hook-and-eye featherbone.   It is woven a little closer than the covered bone and is a little softer, making it easier to sew through.   However, if hook-and-eye featherbone cannot be procured, use may be made of regular featherbone.

Next, cut two pieces of featherbone for the two front side seams, and two pieces for the two back side seams, making each 2 in. longer than the under-arm piece used as a measure.   The two front side seams must be boned a trifle higher than the under-arm and the center-front seam in order to avoid a break at the bust line; and the same remark holds true for the featherbones in the back side seams they must come higher than the piece, or pieces, at the center back in order to avoid a break below the shoulder blades.

Fig. 17

45.   Finishing the Ends of Featherbone.   Af ter cutting the pieces of featherbone-nine in all in the manner just explained, it is necessary to finish the ends of all except the two used for the opening of the waist.   The covering and lining is pulled off both of these so as to avoid making the casing bulky when the featherbone is in place.   As the hook-and-eye featherbone has no covering, this precaution, of course, does not have to be observed when it is used.   To finish the ends of the featherbone, proceed as shown in Fig. 17.   Pull down the covering and lining of the featherbone to within 1 in. of the upper end; cut the featherbone off with a pair of shears or scissors, shaping the end as at a ; and cut away the lining portion until it appears as at b.   Then turn the covering under 1/8 in. and bring it down 8 in. over the end, covering it entirely, as at c.   Finally, overcast the edges as shown at d, so that the end will have a neat appearance.

When all the pieces of featherbone are finished in this manner, measure up from the waist line on each seam of the lining to the point where each bone will come, and there place a pin crosswise so as to mark the point where the end of the bone is to be placed.

46.   Boning With the Boning Attachment.—The next step in boning a lining consists in stitching the featherbone in place.   Sewing silk should be used for this purpose, as it is a little more elastic than cotton thread and therefore is not so liable to break.   Then, too, if silk-covered featherbone is used, as is generally the case, the silk thread is in keeping with it.

stitch the featherbone in place
Fig. 18
stitch the featherbone in place
Fig. 19

To stitch the featherbone in place, proceed as shown in Figs. 18 and 19.   Lay the piece of featherbone on the sewing-machine feed so that its finished end is next to the presser foot and its wrong side is up; pull the featherbone under the needle, and hold it so that its center is exactly under the needle point and the finished end of the bone is in. beyond the needle; then, holding the featherbone in this position, place the attachment that accompanies this Section over the featherbone and secure it in position with the large thumbscrew that is a part of the equipment of every sewing machine.   When the featherbone is in proper position, it should appear as shown in Fig. 18.   Next, place a pressed-open seam of the lining directly over the center of the featherbone, as at a, Fig. 19, with the crosswise pin that marks the termination of the featherbone even with the finished end of the bone, and proceed to stitch the seam to the featherbone, as shown, beginning in. below the end of the bone.   This 2 in. of the bone is left free so that it will not wear a hole in the lining nor draw at the upper end, as it might do if it were sewed in place.   The attachment will guide the featherbone, making it necessary only to watch the seam so as to keep its stitching line directly over the center of the featherbone.

Fig. 20

47.   In boning this lining, which opens in the back, it is well to begin with the center-front seam and then work around to the back, boning each seam, with the exception of the opening.   Of course, if the lining opens in front, the procedure would be the reverse of this.   To get the best results in doing this work, crowd, or ease, each seam on to the featherbone—not so much, though, as to make a wrinkle, but just enough to keep the seams from appearing the least bit drawn, for there should be just a little more seam length in each seam than bone length.   By easing all the seams to the featherbone pieces in this manner, the bones are not liable to pull, or pouch, out from the figure, for then the lining is a trifle fuller than the featherbones, and it has a tendency to hold them back close to the figure, whereas if the seams were stretched over the bones, the reverse would be true.   When, in each seam, a point within 1 in. of the waist line is reached, lift the featherbone by pulling the seam firm, as in Fig. 20, for 2in.; that is, stretch the seam until there is more bone length than seam length for 1 in. above and 1 in. below the waist line.   This operation, called springing the bone is performed so as to give the proper curvature to the figure.   It is necessary in the hip section to crowd or ease the seams of the lining to the featherbone so that it will set smooth and not have a tendency to pouch out at the lower edge.   When all the seams are boned in manner explaibed, remove the attechment and proceed with the finishing of the opening.

bias facing pieces
Fig. 21

48.   Preparing the Casing and the Facing for the Opening.   The casing and the facing for the opening should be prepared next.   Therefore, place the bias facing pieces with their right sides to the wrong side of the lining and one bias edge along the seam line of the opening, as at a, Fig. 21.   Turn the seam allowance of the lining over the facing on the traced line, and then stitch 1/8 in. from the edge, as at b.   Place the hook-and-eye featherbone or the uncovered featherbone, whichever is used, up as close as possible to the stitching between the lining and the facing, and stitch through the bone, the facing, and the lining, as at c, from the top of the bone, easing the lining on to the bone to within 1 in. of the waist line; then spring the bone for 2 in.—that is, 1 in. above and l in. below the waist line— and ease the lining on to the bone to the bottom of the waist.   Next stitch on the outside of the bone, as at d, and continue this stitching from the neck of the lining to the bottom.   This stitching strengthens the facing and provides a firm piece on which to sew the rings of the hooks and eyes.   Finish both sides of the casing m the same manner, and then make ready for the hooks and eyes, which should be sewn on before the lining is finished at the top or the bottom.

Marking the Hooks and Eyes.—Before marking the spaces for the hooks and eyes, determine how high the lining is to come at the neck marking will be done on the portion that will be cut off, for, as a rule, a lace yoke is used in a dress requiring a boned lining, or the neck is cut low, and it is not necessary to extend the hooks and eyes on the lining portion all the way up to the neck.   To mark for the hooks and eyes, bring the edges of the opening together, waist line meeting, and place pins crosswise every few inches to hold the edges together; then, with one cross-slot of the Picken dressmaker's gauge directly over the waist line, as at e, Fig. 21, mark each cross-slot with a pencil or with tailor's chalk.   Move the gauge along on the lining until the entire length is marked, always remembering to place a cross-slot of the gauge directly over the last mark made, so as to insure even spacing the entire length of the opening.

Hooks and Eyes
Fig. 22

50.   Alternating the Hooks and Eyes.—On referring to Fig. 22, it will be seen that the hooks and eyes of a tight lining whose opening edges meet are sewn on differently from those of a garment whose opening edges overlap, as, for example, in the shirred dress previously discussed.   By alternating the hooks and eyes in the manner shown, a more substantial closing is obtained and the danger of the hooks becoming unhooked is obviated.   Thus, it is possible on a boned lining to use humpless hooks and round eyes, which are easier to hook and unhook than are hump hooks and straight eyes, especially on a garment that fits as close as a tight lining.

In sewing hooks and eyes on the tight lining, place the prong of each hook in about 1/16 in. from the edge of the casing, as shown at a, and let the eye extend out 1/16 in., as at b, so that the hook may catch over the eye easily, remembering, in placing the hooks, to put a hook at the waist line on the right-hand side of the opening for convenience in hooking.     Sew over the rings, through the bone and lining, with an over-and-over stitch, rather than with a buttonhole stitch.   This kind of stitch requires much time to make, but it is very necessary, because considerable strain comes on the hooks and eyes of a tight, boned lining.   Also, remember to sew through the prong of each hook, so that there will be no possibility of the prongs pulling away from the casing.   After sewing through the rings, in sewing on the round eyes, sew across the bottom of the eye, as at c.   When all the hooks and eyes are sewed on, turn the outer edge of the facing over a scant ¼ in., as at d, and hem the turned edge to the first stitching of the casing, as at e.   Then, turn down and overhand the facing edge on the other side of the opening, taking care to have the facing come well up under the prongs of the hooks, as at f.   With this work completed, proceed to finish the lining itself.

Fig. 23
Fig. 24

51.   Finishing the Lining.—To finish the lining, trim it off even all the way around the bottom, and then face it with a bias strip of the lining material cut 1 in. wide, turning the facing over and finishing it in. wide on the wrong side.   The finishing of the neck and the armhole will not be fully explained until the lining is used in the making up of a dress, as the dress itself determines the kind of finish to use for the neck and the armhole or the sleeves.   However, if it is desired to complete the lining, the stock collar may be added to the neck, and the top of the collar and the armholes bound with bias facing finished 3/8 in. wide.   If sleeves of the same material as the lining are to be used, stitch and notch the seams and sew them in the lining, overcasting the armholes and facing the sleeves at the wrist, or lower edge, with a 3/8-in. finished facing.

52.   Boning a Lining Without an Attachment.—Featherbone may be put in without the boning attachment previously mentioned, if necessary; but, in such an event, more time is required and much care must be exercised in guiding the featherbone and the seam at the same time.   To bone a lining without the attachment, first finish the pieces of featherbone at one end and mark their position on the seams in the manner already explained; then, instead of using the attachment, open out the seam as in Fig. 23, place the center of the featherbone, wrong side down, directly over the center of the seam, and begin to stitch ½ in. from the end of the bone; proceed with the stitching very carefully, easing the lining and springing the featherbone where necessary.   Fig. 23 illustrates clearly how to stretch the lining in order to spring the bone, and Fig. 24 shows how to ease the seam on to the featherbone without the attachment.

Girdles, or waist-line foundations