TIGHT LININGS AND BONING

MAKING THE TIGHT LINING

6.   Preparing the Pattern.—After the dress form has been selected, the first step in the work of padding it is, as has already been inf erred, the making of the tight lining ; and the first step in preparing the lining consists in making ready a close-fitting waist pattern having a stock collar.   The waist pattern should have either a two- or a three-piece back, the bust measure determining which should be employed.   If the length of the pattern below the waist line is not sufficient to reach down over the solid portion of the form, additional length should be provided in the pattern.   If arms are desired for the form and it is advisable to use them it will be necessary to prepare a two-piece sleeve pattern for them.

7.   Placing the Pattern and Cutting the Material.   Khaki cloth or tan, gray, or dull-blue galatea of the best quality is most satis factory for the tight lining, as it does not stretch easily ; neither does it show soil.   For the body part of the lining for a form of medium size, 24 yd. of 32-in, material is sufficient, but if two arms are used, then 4 yd. more is needed, making 3 yd. altogether.

In making any kind of lining that is to fit close to the body, whether it is a tight lining for a dress or a dress form or a tight corset cover, the cutting should be done crosswise of the material.   Although cutting in this manner is contrary to the general rules of cutting, it is productive of the best results, for there will then be no danger of the material becoming stretched out of shape in fitting or adj u sting, and practically all possibility of splitting will be overcome.

Pattern
Fig. 2

8.   To prepare the material for the tight lining, fold it, with its right side in, through the center, crosswise, and pin together first the eut ends and then the selvage edges ; then, with the selvage edge next to you, place and firmly pin each part of the pattern on the material in the manner shown in Fig. 2. The illustration should be followed very closely in placing and pinning the pattern, and 2 to 4 in. should be allowed on all edges for seams.   Wide seams tend to add firmness and strength to a lining, and they make it set better on a padded form.   They also permit changes to be made easily ; thus, if a person increases or decreases in size, it is a simple matter to let out or take in the seams.

Another thing to bear in mind in placing a tight foundation pattern on the material is that the waist line of the center-front, the side-back, and center-back pieces should go on a straight, lengthwise thread of the material, while the bust line of the side front should go on a lengthwise thread, as should also the elbow line of the upper and under sleeve portions.   The center front of the collar should be placed on a crosswise fold of the material, as is clearly shown in the illustration.

For the top of the dress form and for the armliole openings, it is necessary to have extra pieces of material.   Therefore, patterns similar to those shown in the illustration should be placed on the material; these patterns do not have to be of the exact shape shown, but they must be large enough to cover the openings in covering the form.   Place the pattern for the cushion top on a single piece of material, and that for the armhole on double pieces, as shown, so as to have one for each armhole.

As will be observed from the illustration, the tight lining for the form is intended to open at the back.   Placing the opening at the back is done for convenience, it being a much simpler matter to sew up the lining at the back when it is on the padded form than to sew it up at the front.   The collar also comes together in a better line at the back than it does at the front.

9.   With the pattern placed and pinned to the material in the manner just explained, the tight lining is ready to be cut out.   But before any cutting is done trace the pattern lines very carefully all the way around, tracing up, as well as down, from the waist line, so that there will be no possibility of the pattern slipping; also, trace the waist line in each section of the pattern, as well as the elbow line in the sleeve.   Cut the material with great care, allowing for the seams the amount already mentioned and allowing as much material as possible to extend below each section of the waist pattern.   The part below each pattern piece should not be cut away until after the lining is on the form, for the lining must be sufficiently long to come down well over the form and be tucked up underneath it.

10.   Pinning and Basting.—The next step in making the tight-fitting lining consists in pinning and basting the center-front lines together.   Although, in drafting, the pattern for the lining is built from the bust line up and down, it is balanced from the waist line; also, the hip sections are built from the waist line down.   Therefore, begin pinning at the waist line and pin up and down, being very careful to pin exactly in the traced.   lines and to avoid stretching the seams; then replace the pins with basting.   For all basting, in making a lining of this kind, No. 40 or No. 50 cotton thread should be used.   Basting cotton should be avoided, because, as a rule, it is not strong enough to stand the strain in fitting.   In addition, short stitches should be taken in basting so that the seams will not gap in fitting.   Next, pin and baste the side-front sections to the side- center fronts, and in basting over the fullest part of the bust be very careful not to permit any wrinkles to creep in.   On the front of the side-front section, from the bust line to the waist line, the seam must be stretched a trifle so that it will be long enough to meet the waist line of the center-front section.   Next, pin and baste the side-back sections to the side of the center-back sections.   After the side-front and the side-back seams are basted, pin and baste together the under-arm seams of the side backs and the side fronts, placing their wrong sides together, so that the seam's will come on the right side for convenience in fitting, and pinning the seams up and down from the waist line.   Then, beginning at the neck, pin and baste the shoulder seams together.   In basting the shoulder seams together, press open the side-front and the side-back seams so that they will fit smoothly over the shoulders.   As will be remembered, the front shoulder line is drafted a little shorter than the back shoulder line; therefore, the front shoulder will have to be stretched in basting, in order that it will be of the same length as the back shoulder.

11.   Next, trim the neck outside the traced lines to within 4 in. of the tracing, and then clip the seam allowance in several places so that the neck of the lining will fit comfortably when tried on.   Turn the lower edge of the collar over to the wrong side on the traced line and baste it in position.   Clip the top edge of the collar in three or four places, and crease the front so that it will turn over smoothly in fitting.

Next, place the wrong side of the under and upper sleeve together and pin the tracings of the outside sleeve seams from the bottom of the sleeve up to the elbow and from the top of the sleeve down to this point, keeping the seams to the right side to permit the sleeve to be fitted in close to the arm.   If there is any fulness in the upper sleeve portion at the elbow, it should be adjusted evenly so that it will not form in plaits, but, rather, will be eased in to allow freedom for the elbow.   Pin the inside sleeve seams together in the manner directed for the outside sleeve seams, and then baste both seams in the same direction as they were pinned.   Finally, run a basting thread along the tracings of the center back and the waist line.

12.   Fitting the Tight Lining.—The next important step after pinning and basting consists in fitting the lining.   If you are making the lining for yourself, you should have some person who understands the principles of fitting do this work for you.   However, if there is no one around who is capable of fitting a garment, you will have to direct some person to do the fitting according to the principles here outlined.   In such an event, it will be very necessary for you to stand in front of a mirror, in order that you may see just how the lining fits and at the same time ascertain where the seams will need to be taken in or let out.

In fitting a dressform lining, a goodfitting corset is a necessity.   A lightweight, close-fitting petticoat should be worn with the corset, but by no means should a corset cover be placed over the corset, for it is not possible to secure a perfect fit over undergarments that are the least bit bunglesome; nor is it possible to get an accurate fit over an old corset that has lost its shape on account of too much wear.

the lining
Fig. 3
the lining
Fig. 4

13.   Put the lining on and pull it down well on the figure, as shown in the front view, Fig. 3, and the back view, Fig. 4. Bring the center-back seam together and pin in the tracings, beginning at the neck and pinning down even with the shoulder blades; then begin to pin the waist line together at the center back and continue to pin upwards until the seam is pinned together its full length from the waist to the neck.   Then pin from the waist line downwards over the hips.

If necessary in fitting, clip the seam allowance at the neck in several places, taking care not to clip beyond the tracings; also, clip the armhole seam at the front under arm.   The armhole should fit quite close, but if it appears to be a little too tight, clip it carefully so that the armhole will assume exactly the same line as a dress itself should, and thus be suitable as a guide in fitting the armhole of waists, coats, etc.   So that the width of back will remain correct, much care should be exercised in turning in the armhole edges.   Next, pin the center front of the collar to the center-front seam of the waist, and then pin in a good, even line around to the back.   If the tracing around the neck of the lining itself is not correct, either lower or raise the collar above the tracing, thus securing a perfect neck line.   Turn the collar in at the top to the height desired; and remember that it should be a trifle lower in the front than in the back.   In nearly every case the upper traced line of the collar will be correct, but it is always well to make sure of this point in fitting, because the height of the collar is a very important feature, especially when high collars are worn.   After the height of the collar has been determined, pin the collar together at the center back, drawing it close, but not so close as to make it uncomfortable.

14.   Next, fold in the center, crosswise, a piece of linen tape 3/8 to 2 in. wide and or 3 in. longer than the waist measure, place the center of the tape on the center-front seam at the waist line, and then pin it from the center front on each side, in a good, even line, around to the back.   If the front and back measurements used in drafting the pattern are correct, the traced waist line will be sufficiently correct to be covered with the tape; however, if the tracing appears to be a little too high, the tape should be allowed to assume the correct line and it should be pinned every 2 or 3 in. so that it will hold in position when the waist is removed from the figure.

In order that all garments fitted over the dress form may be correct, a perfect waist line is very essential.   It is therefore well for the person who is being fitted to look in a mirror and then turn around several times to study the waist line and ascertain whether or not it is absolutely correct.   At the same time, the shoulder lines should be noticed to see whether the shoulder length is just as it is wanted.   A lining that has been carefully traced from a perfectly drafted pattern requires very little fitting it should fit without a wrinkle; yet, if it is discovered that the shoulders must be taken up a trifle or even let out, there should be no hesitation in making such a change.   In fact, any necessary changes in the lining should be made at this time.   Very little difficulty is encountered in altering the shoulder and under-arm seams; however, it is well to observe the curved seams.   If they bulge out at any place, they should be pinned in enough to give a good line; if they appear to be tight, they should be let out the necessary amount.   But in making any changes in the lining, care must be taken that it is not drawn the least bit across the bust; it should set easy and smooth and not draw in any place.

15.   Some figures with a very low bust may be hollow through the chest, making it necessary to take the side front seams in a little from the bust up to the shoulder.   Such a figure usually has sloping shoulders also, in which event the side-back seams will have to be let out a little from the lower part of the shoulder blades up to the back shoulder seam.   For persons having overerect figures, that is, for persons who throw the shoulders back unnaturally, the side-back seams may have to be taken in a trifle from the lower part of the shoulder blades up to the shoulder.

diagonal wrinkles
Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Very square shoulders sometimes cause diagonal wrinkles to form in the lining, as shown in Fig. 5 (a).   Such wrinkles may be overcome by lifting the shoulder seam at the neck, as shown in view (b).   If the wrinkles are very prominent, open out the shoulder seam and, with the lining adjusted perfectly at the waist line, stand at the side of the figure and with one hand on the back shoulder and one on the front smooth the lining up until all wrinkles have disappeared; then pin the shoulders, placing the pins in very caref ully so that a good, even line will be obtained.   To correct wrinkles caused by shoulders that slope considerably, as in Fig. 6 (a), adjust the lining properly and lift the shoulder seams on the point of the shoulder, as in (b).

small dart
Fig. 7

16.   Should the lining wrinkle; much in front when the arms are down, it is too high under the arms.   In such a case, the armhole may be trimmed out a trifle, or perhaps just clipping will overcome the trouble.   If the lining appears to be a little too full at the front under arm, a small dart should be taken at the armhole, tapering it out toward the bust line, as shown in Fig. 7.   As a rule such a change is not necessary, and in any event the dart will be very tiny.   Such a small dart should be stitched with great care, so that a wrinkle; will not form at the end.

Another point to observe at this time is the manner in which the lining sets, so as to form an idea of how the stitching should be done.   If the lining appears to be loose all over, the machine stitching may be done inside the basting; but if it is tight the machine stitching should, of course, be placed outside the basting.   It is just such points as these that help to get a perfect-fitting finished lining.

17.   Fitting the Sleeves.–After the lining is fitted in the manner just described, the sleeves should be fitted.   Slip each sleeve on as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, with the seams to the outside.   As the sleeves are to be the arms of the dress form, pin each sleeve in close to the arm itself, not tight enough to draw the flesh, but just enough to obtain the exact outline of the arm.   Then turn and pin the lower edges as in the first fitting of a plain-blouse sleeve.

18.   Removing the Lining, Stitching, and Finishing.  
Since the sleeve is fitted closely, it will be necessary to open up theinside sleeve seam from 5 to 6 in. in order to remove the sleeve from the figure.   In doing this, place the pins in the upper portion, exactly in the fitted line, so that when the sleeve is laid out on a table the tracing will run in line with the pin marks in the seam line.

Remove the pins from the center back, and as they are removed place them back in the right side in exactly the same places that they were when the waist was pinned together, and thus keep the seam line exact.   Pins that are removed from the collar and the waist line should be put back in the same way, also.

19.   Next, remove the waist and trace along the pin lines of the shoulder and under-arm; then run a basting thread around the neck of the waist at the bottom of the collar and also around the bottom of the waist-line tape.   Remove the collar and the waist-line tape from the lining; take out the bastings from the shoulder and under-arm seams; and baste the under-arm seams on the wrong side in the same manner as they were basted on the right side.   Turn the center-back seams to the wrong side exactly in line with the pin line that was obtained in fitting.

Next, stitch all the body seams of the lining, beginning at the waist line and continuing up to the shoulder line; then, beginning again at the waist line, stitch down over the hips on each seam.   In stitching, the machine stitching should be kept the width of one thread outside the basting, unless, of course, the lining is to be increased or decreased in the manner already mentioned.   When the stitching is completed, clip each seam edge 2 in. above and below the waist line and then remove the basting from all the seams that have been stitched.

Next, place the lining on an ironing board, right side down, and press the seams open with a hot iron.   In pressing, the fingers of the left hand made wet by dipping them in water should be run along the inside of a seam to spread the edges apart, and as the dampening is proceeded with the fingers should be followed up with the hot iron.   The seams must be pressed firmly, so that not one wrinkle; will be left in the lining.

The lining
Fig. 8

20.   When the pressing is completed, baste the tape around the waist, using the diagonal basting-stitch so that the tape will not slip when the machine-stitching is done.   After the waist-line tape is basted in position, measure it to ascertain whether or not it is exactly the same as the waist measure.   If the tape is a little larger than the waist, the tape should be drawn a little tighter; if it is smaller than the waist measure, the under-arm seams may have to of the edges of the seams of the lining itself fold back under or over each other in doing this, for all the seams must open out flat.   Baste the shoulder seams next, seam edge to the wrong side, and then stitch them in place.   Remove the basting from these seams and press them flat.   Next, baste and stitch the collar on, keeping its lower edge even with the basting line around the neck of the lining that marks the position of the collar; then, turn the armhole edges under in a good, even line and baste them all the way around.   The lining should now appear as shown in Fig. 8.

Next, in order to make the collar firm enough to hold its shape, cut a piece of cardboard that will permit of bending without cracking the size of the stock-collar pattern and baste its lower and upper edges to the lower and upper edges of the collar, taking very short stitches on the right side so that they will not show, as they will be left in when the dress form is padded.   The lining is now ready to be slipped on the dress form in order to determine how much cotton batting is needed for padding and where most of the padding should be applied.


Padding the form